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英语语法之省略句教学课件.pptx(565KB)
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Elliptical Sentence s 英语中特殊句式之一——省略句 Elliptical Sentences A. To avoid repetition and make sentences more conc ise:  Mike said that he would come to school to see me the  next day, but he didn't come to school to see me the next day.  迈克说他第二天要来学校看我,然而第二天他并没有来学校看我。  Mike said that he would come to school to see me the next d ay, but he didn‘t. ( omit 9 words!!!) 迈克说他第二天要来学校看我,然而他并没有来。(此处省略 9个 字!!!) The Purpose Of Using Elliptical Expression B. To make a sentence more coherent. Compare:  John was the winner in 1994 and Bob in 19 98.  John was the winner in 1994 and Bob was th e winner in 1998.  In some places we stopped in tents for the ni ght,  in other places in caves.   In some places we stopped in tents for the n ight, in other places we stopped in caves for the night.  The Purpose Of Using Elliptical Expression C. To emphasize the main content:  Truth speaks too low, hypocrisy too . 真理讲话声太低,虚伪讲话声太高。  — Have you told him that ?  — Not  .  (= I have not told him that yet. ) The Purpose Of Using Elliptical Expression l ud yet Here comes the question, where can we use ellipsis?  1.the ellipsis of article    They elected John (the) monitor of the class.    A man and (a) woman are talking in the offic e.   He could not understand why there was no n oise coming from the house, not even the so und of the radio or (the) television.  一 、词的省略  2. the ellipsis of pronoun  I went to the market, (I) bought something usef ul, and (I) returned home within an hour.   They didn't like it, yet (they) said nothing.     (It) Doesn't matter.  (You) Had a good time, didn‘t you?   I like your two small bottles, but I don't like the  smallest (one).   3.the ellipsis of conjunction   We are delighted (that) you can come.   I believe (that) you will succeed   It's a pity (that) he's leaving.   4.the ellipsis of relative word  I'll give you all (that) I have.  He read the book (which) I got yesterday.   It happened on the day (when) we first met.  There is a man (who) wants to see you.   5.the ellipsis of auxiliary  (Does) Anyone want a drink?     Who (do) you think you are? 你以为你是谁啊? 在特殊疑问句中,当主语是第二人称时,助动词 do 可省略  I (have) got to go now.  They requested that everyone( should) atte nd the meeting on time. (虚拟语气中)  6.bare infinitive  I hope to finish my job and (to) go back home . 当几个不定式并列时,一般只需在第一个不定式前用 to  What we could do was (to) get away. 主语从句中含有 do,那么作表语的动词不定式往往 省略 to  We did not dare (to) speak.  dare作行为动词用时,否定式可省略 to  There is nothing to do but (to) obey the orders 介词 but前如有 do, but后可省略 to 注意: 当两个并列的不定式在意义上表示对比关系 时,后面的不定式一般不省略 to。 To be or not to be, that is the question. 活着还是死亡,这就 是问题所在。(莎士比亚) It was better to lau gh than to cry. 笑比哭好。  7.the ellipsis of preposition  He went (in) that way.  The two boys are (of) the same age.  I am in doubt (about) whether this is right or not.  You may come to see me (at) any time betwe en 4 and 5.  She must have stayed here (for) a long time.  In following collocations, “in” is always omitted:  be busy (in) doing sth. 忙于做某事  spend time (in) doing sth. 花时间做某事  waste energy (in) doing sth. 浪费精力做某事  have difficulty (in) doing sth.  做某事有困难  have a good time (in) doing sth.  某事做得非常愉  have a hard time (in) doing sth.  某事做得很艰难  take turns (in) doing sth.  轮流做某事  It is no use (in) doing sth.  做某事没有用  It is no good (in) doing sth.  做某事无益  There is no hurry (in) doing sth.  不必着急做某事  There is no point (in) doing sth.  做某事无意义  There is no use (in) doing sth.  做某事没有用 I. Choose the best answers.1)----Tomorrow is a holiday. Why are you doing your homework? -----I am doing these exercises now so that I won’t have _____ on Sunday. A. it B. them C. for D. to  8.the ellipsis of “there”    (There) Ought to be some coffee in the pot.  壶里应该有些咖啡的。    (There) Must be somebody waiting for you.  肯定有人在等你。 二 .句子成分的省略 1. subject ellipsis  Hope so. 希望如此。(= I hope so.) Beg your pardon. 请你原谅。(= I beg your pardo n)  Serves you right. 你活该!(= It serves you right.)  2.predicate ellipsis  Anything the matter?(= Is anything the m atter)  Who next (= Who comes next)  Just a moment, please. (= Just wait a mom ent, please.)  3.predicative ellipsis  Are you ready Yes, I am. 你准备好了吗? 我准 备好了。( am后面省略了表语 ready)  China has been, and still is, the most populou s country in the world. 中国过去是,而且现在还 是世界上人口最多的国家。 (= China has been the most populous country in the world and s till is the most populous country in the worl d.) 4.object ellipsis We have to analyze and solve problem s. ( analyze后省略了宾语 problems)  I struck match after match, but could not light. ( light后省略了宾语 a match) Let's do the dishes. I'll wash and you'll dry. (wash和 dry后面省略了宾语 dishe s) 5.attributive ellipsis He spent part of the money, and the re st he saved. ( the rest后面省略了定语 of the money) 6.adverbial ellipsis  (Even) The wisest man cannot know ev erything. Mary spoke (rudely), and John answere d rudely. He was not hurt. (How) Strange!  My brother is a doctor and my sister-in-law (is) a lawyer. ①如果主语不同,而谓语动词中的一部分相 同,则省略谓语动词中相同的那部分。 ② 主语相同,谓语动词也相同,则二者都可 以省略。 ③ 主语相同,而谓语不同,则可以省略主语。 ④在并列复合句中,如果 that从句从属于第 二个并列句且它的谓语动词和宾语等其它一些 成分与第一个并列句相同时,这个 that从句通 常可以省略这些相同的部分。 三 、 ellipsis in compound sentences 四、 ellipsis in complex senten ces  1.在一些状语从句中,如果谓语动词是 be,从句主 语又和主句的主语一致,常常可以把从句中的主语和 be省略掉。 ①以when, while, once, until等连词引导的 时间状语从句  When (you are) in Rome do as Rome does. 或者从句主语是 it,常常可以把从句中的主语和 be 省略掉。  Whenever (it is) possible, you should speak E nglish as much as you can. ②由连词 before和 after引导的时间状语从句, 如省略了主语和 be之后, before和 after就成 了介词。  The old machine must be checked before it is used. 这台旧机器在使用前必须检查。  The old machine must be checked before use d.  The old machine must be checked before bei ng used. (动词的 -ed形式不可做介词的宾语)  He told me the truth after he was asked three times. 问了他三遍他才告诉我真相。  He told me the truth after asked three times.  He told me the truth after being asked three t imes. ③以 as if, as though等连词引导的方式状语从句 She lay there, as if (she was) dead. 她躺在那 儿,好像死了。(省略的主语和主句的主语一致)  He opened his lips as if (he were going) to say something. ④以 if, unless等连词引导的条件状语从句  We shall start at eight, if (it is) convenient.  Correct the mistakes in the following sentence s, if (there are) any.  English words are easily forgotten unless (the y are) constantly repeated. ④以 even if, even though, though, altho ugh, whether等连词引导的让步状语从句  Frost is possible, though (it is) not probable, e ven at the end of May. 甚至在五月底下霜也是可 能的,虽然可能性不太大。  Whether (it is) difficult or not, we will try our best to complete the task. 不管任务是否艰巨, 我们都要尽力去完成。  Whatever the cause (may be), the result is ce rtain. 不论原因是什么,结果是确定的。  Though (he is) young, he knows a lot. 他虽然 年轻但懂得很多。  2.比较从句中的省略 :  This is a little complicated…….  Attention: the situation of using “do” as an alterna tive!  I know you better than he does. 我比他更了解你。 ( he does = he knows you)  So, talk about using alternative word…………….. NEXT PAGE!  --- Has she ever been to London?  --- I don't think so. (= I don't think she has been to London.)  He said he would make the bed for me bu t he didn't do so.( do so代替make the b ed for me)  --- Will it rain tomorrow ?  --- I hope not. (= I hope it wo n't rain tomorrow.)  Can you come next week ?  --- I'm afraid not. (= I'm afraid t hat I can not come.) so not 肯定代替 否定代替  The mother swept the floor and her child did the same. ( the same代替 swept the floor)  注意:只能谓语是实义动词的情况!不能出现 b e the same  Kate ordered two fried eggs. I ordered th e same. ( the same代替 two fried egg s)  I haven't got any books; can yo u lend me one? 我没有书,你能借 我一本吗 ?  The white dresses go with the hat better than the blue ones. 白色套装比蓝色套装更配这顶帽子。 the same one/ones 2)----Shall I invite Ann to my birthday party tomorrow evening? ----Yes. It’ll be fine if you______. A. are B. can C. invite D. do 3)---- Aren’t you the manager? ---- No, and I______ A. don’t want to B. don’t want to be C. don’t want be D. don’t want 刚第三题的考点:在一般疑问句的简略答语时应注意的问题: 1.如果不定式结构中的动词是be或have(have作“有”讲时),则需要 保留动词be或have. --Are you a taxi-driver? -- No, but I used to be. 2.going to:  —Are they going to see the car factory next week? —Yes, they are.(No, they aren't.) 3.Have作助动词的时候也不能省: Have you told Allen about the concert? —Sorry, but I ought to have. 4. ought to: Ought he to start now? Yes ,he ought. The ellipsis in the headline: 1.omit form word: (for example article, possessive pronoun, linking verb, auxiliar y) SISU Launches Excellent Global La w Talent Program 2.omit linking verb: Joint Conference of China’s Russian Centers Held in SISU.
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该课件主要讲解本单元的一个语法点:省略。省略句在英语语法中占有很大比例… »

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